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IGNOU MAPC 1st Year Practical File Pdf Syllabus
MPCL-7 FIRST YEAR PRACTICUM
The following practicals are to be conducted by the learners:
• Intelligence Testing (Bhatia Battery)
In the course MPC-001: Cognitive Psychology, you learnt about the idea of intelligence. In our everyday lives, we frequently remark things like, “she is incredibly intellectual,” or “he is a bright student.” We form opinions about the mental abilities of people based on their actions and specific accomplishments. Do you believe it is possible to quantify a person’s intelligence? This is exactly where psychologists began, with the goal of developing some scientific processes to determine how and what sort of mental capacity a person possesses. However, measuring anything that cannot be immediately witnessed, such as all psychological qualities, is an extremely tough undertaking. And the work was more difficult in the case of intellect. Because measuring anything necessitates a straightforward response to what is being measured. The fascinating thing about intelligence is that each test designed to assess it defines the concept in its own unique way.
Many IQ tests have been devised to date to accommodate an individual’s cultural background. There are also culturally-neutral assessments that apply to everyone, regardless of culture. Culture-fair examinations are free of any verbal content and assess cultural and language understanding. C. M. Bhatia developed Bhatia’s Battery of Performance Tests of Intelligence in 1953.
• Personality Testing (16 PF)
You learnt the notion of personality, several theories of personality, and several approaches to measure the construct in the course MPC-003: Personality: Theories and Assessment. We are aware of the various methods and ideas that have been established in order to comprehend and explain the idea of personality. These theories are founded on several models of human behaviour. Each sheds insight on an important part of personality, but not all aspects.
Raymond B.Cattell, a British psychologist, created the 16 Personality Factor Test. According to Cattell, there is a common structure that distinguishes humans from one another. This structure is determinable experimentally. He uncovered the similar structures using a statistical approach known as factor analysis. He discovered 16 main or source characteristics. The source qualities are stable and are regarded as the foundation of personality.
Aside from these, there are a number of surface qualities that emerge through the interplay of source features. Cattell defined the source features as conflicting inclinations. Cattell created the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) to analyse personality. Today, psychologists commonly utilise this exam.
The exam was initially published in 1949, and it was updated in 1956 and 1962. Between 1967 and 1969, five different editions of the fourth edition were issued. In 1993, the fifth edition of 16 PF was launched. PF stands for ‘Personality Factors,’ and there are sixteen of them, thus it is known as 16 PF. These 16 characteristics are the most important source qualities. According to Cattell’s thesis, every individual contains a degree of each of the sixteen features listed below (Cattell also uses the word factors).
• Test for Social Behaviour (Vineland Social Maturity Scale)
MPC-004: Advanced Social Psychology taught you about social competency. Social maturity is concerned with learning how to connect correctly to acquaintances, friends, and intimate relationships. It also entails learning how to appreciate and respect people in positions of power, whether civic, parental, employer, or spiritual. It is an indicator of a person’s life abilities in various settings.
Edger Arnold Doll, an American psychologist, created the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (1953). The exam assesses communication skills, general self-help abilities, mobility skills, occupational skills, self-direction, self-help eating, self-help clothing, and sociability abilities.
The exam is given to the youngster during an interview with a parent or another person familiar with the individual being examined. It assesses social competence, self-help capabilities, and adaptive behaviour from birth to eighteen years. It is used to organise treatment and/or tailored teaching for individuals with intellectual disabilities or emotional problems. The Vineland scale consists of 89 items for interview with a parent or other primary caregiver and can be used from birth to the age of 18. Daily living skills (general self-help, eating, dressing); communication (listening, speaking, writing); motor skills (fine and gross, including locomotion); socialisation (interpersonal interactions, play and leisure, and coping skills); occupational skills; and self-direction are all assessed. The exam is not timed and lasts 20-30 minutes.
• Family Pathology Scale
In MPC-002: Life Span Development, you learnt about the effects of dysfunctional households. As you are aware, the family is the most important social unit in any society. In India, the family, rather than the individual, has been seen as the social system’s unit. The Indian family represents Indian society’s socio-cultural fabric, as well as its philosophy and values (Sethi, 1989).
Vimala Veeraraghavan and Archana Dogra built the scale (2000). The family pathology scale measures the amount to which maladaptive behaviour exists among family members in their interactions with one another, such as between spouses and between parents and children. A total of 100 items were created in the form of statements that had to be scored on a three-point scale, with 1 indicating ‘low/no family pathology’ (‘Never’ response), 2 indicating ‘average family pathology’ (‘occasional’ answer), and 3 indicating ‘high family pathology’ (most often response). This 100-item measure was delivered to 25 clinical psychologists and 25 psychiatrists. On a three-point scale, the judges were asked to identify how strongly each item was indicative of familial pathology: “very suggestive,” “slightly suggestive,” and “not at all suggestive.” Using the internal consistency technique, only items with the same evaluation among all 50 experts were picked. Second, the items with a rating of 1 indicating weak family pathology differed by two points from the item with a rating of 2 indicating high family pathology. Only those items that satisfied the above two criteria were chosen and included in the final scale for family pathology. Thus, there are 42 items on the scale to which the participant must react with ‘most frequently,’ ‘occasionally,’ or ‘never.’ These were subsequently given to 300 married couples from the normal population (N=600) and 100 couples from the psychiatric (pathological) population (N=200), and the reliability and validity were determined.
MPC-004: Advanced Social Psychology taught you about social interaction. The sociometry practicum is based on the sociometry approach. The term sociometry (invented by Jacob Levy Moreno in 1951) is derived from the Latin words “socius” (social) and “metrum” (measure). As a result, the phrases indicate that sociometry is a method of determining the degree of relatedness between people. Measuring the degree of relatedness or affiliation may aid not only in analysing the degree of cohesion among members of a group, work teams, class, or organisation, but it may also aid in bringing about positive change and necessary interventions. Sociometry is also a useful tool for bridging communication gaps and minimising conflict by assisting groups in analysing, examining, and evaluating their own dynamics. It can also be useful in determining which regions or groups require therapy or training. It is a metric that assesses how individuals interact with one another when working as a group toward a common objective (Creswell in Moreno, 1960, p. 140). Moreno (1953, pp. 15-16) defined sociometry as “the mathematical study of psychological aspects of populations, the experimental methodology of, and the findings gained by application of quantitative methods.”
Sociometry may be used as a scale to assist people make decisions while building interpersonal connections. It is a measuring methodology in which at least (minimum) a group of 5-6 members is asked to pick or pick members of the same group based on a certain criteria, such as everyone in the group being able to make selections and explain why the choices were chosen. A description of the networks inside the group comes from these options. A sociogram is created using these decisions or preferences to create a depiction, similar to a map, of those networks. The sociogram data can alternatively be represented as a table or matrix of each person’s choices. A table like this is known as a sociometric matrix.
• Problem Behaviour Checklist
The current test is based on the issue behaviour of children that you learnt in the MPC-002: Life Span Development course. Vimla Veeraraghavan and Archana Dogra (2003) created the problem behaviour checklist to identify children’s emotional and behavioural issues. A total of 100 items were created in the form of symptoms that had to be scored on a three-point scale, with 1, 2, and 3 indicating ‘no,’ ‘average,’ and ‘high’ problem behaviour, respectively. Specific diagnostic criteria for emotional, conduct, and mixed disorders of conduct and emotions were included individually in ICD-10. This set of 100 items was distributed to 25 psychologists and 25 psychiatrists. Using the internal consistency technique, only items with the same evaluation among all 50 experts were picked. 58 items were chosen from a total of 100 using this technique. Thus, there are 58 questions on the scale to which parents must react, with three response categories: “most often,” “sometimes,” and “never.” These were then administered to 300 married couples from the general population (N=600) and 100 couples from the psychiatric (pathological) population (N=200), and the reliability and validity were determined.
• Span of Attention Experiment
In MPC-001: Cognitive Psychology, you learnt about the idea of Perception. Perception is a cognitive process that involves the interpretation and organisation of sensations in a meaningful way. The term ‘Span of attention’ or ‘Span of perception’ refers to the greatest number of basic items correctly perceived in a single brief presentation (Woodworth & Schlosberg, 1954).
Jevons (1871) was a pioneer in this field. When the nature of numerous stimulus items delivered randomly is the same, a person’s span of attention refers to the greatest number of things or objects apprehended by him. Human brains, as gestalt psychologists have demonstrated, prefer to accept objects in their whole. When it is unable to comprehend the whole, it resorts to pieces rather than smaller wholes. When we come across the term PSYCHOLOGY, we normally take a look at this letter grouping as well as the first few letters and read the word. It’s worth noting that even if a letter in the centre, like “o,” is absent, the word is correctly recognised. This obliviousness to typographical problems is referred to as proof reader’s delusion.
The span of visual apprehension is assessed using a device called as a tachistoscope. It is a device meant to show a short display of the stimuli to the participant.
• Memory Experiment
You must have comprehended the idea of Memory and the different forms of memory in the MPC-001: Cognitive Psychology course. Ebbinghaus discovered in 1885 that the effects of memory might be viewed more pragmatically with the use of nonsensical syllables (i.e., meaning less words like- mus, duv, tun). He discovered that if participants were given a list of words to learn and then asked to recollect them after a particular time period, they could recall non-sense syllables more efficiently and rapidly than meaningful phrases. He was then questioned by Bartlett (1932), who stated that memory is affected not just by nonsense syllables, but also by cognitive, social and experimental context, and that these factors should be included when assessing memory. Later on, other methods of testing memory were developed. Experiments with a memory drum are now considered one of the fundamental approaches for testing memory. A memory drum is a cylindrical contraption that may be turned clockwise. It is essentially a mechanical device for the serial display of syllables or phrases over a predetermined amount of time and at certain intervals. You will carry out any memory-based experiment utilising a memory drum or any other instrument.
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